Day 3 :
Michigan State University, USA
Time : 09:00-09:25
Ramani Narayan is University Distinguished Professor at Michigan State University -- the highest honor that can be bestowed on a faculty member. He is Fellow of the U.S. National Academy of Inventors; Fellow of ASTM & received ASTM award of merit -- the highest award given by the society to an individual member. He is Scientific Chair of the Biodegradable Products Institute (BPI) USA; and convener/technical expert on several ISO Standards committees. He has 200 refereed publications, 30 issued patents, and graduated 20 Ph. D and 25 Master’s students. He is a successful entrepreneur, having commercialized several bioplastics technologies.
Design for product biodegradability in conjunction with controlled, managed disposal systems like composting or anaerobic digestion can offer an environmentally responsible end-of-life value proposition. However, much confusion, misuse, and misleading claims abound in the market place. This lecture will discuss the science and issues surrounding biodegradability – what does the claim “biodegradable” mean? What value does biodegradability as an end-of-life solution offer ? Should an unqualified claim of “biodegradable” without any reference to time element, rate, and disposal environment be permitted? Are such statements truthful or misleading? Is “marine biodegradability” a solution or exacerbate the problem of plastics waste in the ocean. We will discuss these issues on a science basis and review the International Standards and regulations in this space as well as learn accurate reporting and communication of “biodegradable” value attribute.
- Workshop Session
Location: Texas B
Michigan State University, USA
Ramani Narayan is University Distinguished Professor, the highest honor that can be bestowed on a faculty member at Michigan State University. He is Fellow of the US National Academy of Inventors; Fellow of ASTM & received ASTM award of merit, the highest award given by the society to an individual member. He is Scientific Chair of the Biodegradable Products Institute (BPI) USA; and Convener/Technical Expert on several ISO Standards committees. He has 200 refereed publications, 30 issued patents and supervised 20 PhD and 25 Master’s students. He is a successful Entrepreneur, having commercialized several bioplastics technologies.
Replacing petro/fossil carbon with bio-based carbon by using plant biomass feedstock in place of fossil feedstock for the manufacture of plastic materials offers a strong 'value proposition' for a zero material carbon footprint. It may also reduce the process carbon and environmental footprint. A methodology for quantification of 'bio-based carbon content' has been developed and codified into the ASTM Standard D6866. Using bio-based carbon content calculations, one can calculate the intrinsic CO2 reductions achieved by incorporating bio-based carbon content into a plastic product - the material carbon footprint. It is important to report on the process carbon footprint (process footprint arising from the conversion of feedstock to product) using lifecycle assessment methodology to ensure that the intrinsic material carbon footprint value proposition is not negated during the conversion, use, and disposal lifecycle phases of the product. Biodegradability is an end-of-life option for single-use disposable plastics and needs to be tied to a disposal environment such as composting (compostable plastic) or soil or anaerobic digestion. More importantly, if a biodegradable plastic is not completely and rapidly removed (within not more than 1-2 years) from the target disposal environment, the degraded fragments become toxin carriers, resulting in serious environmental and health risks. ASTM, European, and ISO standards define and specify the requirements for complete biodegradability in composting, soil, and marine environments and must be strictly adhered to so that serious environmental and health consequences can be avoided.
Coffee Break: 10:25-10:45 @ Foyer
- Track 1: Routes to Drop-in Monomers and Bioplastics
Track 2: Future and Scope for Biopolymers and Bioplastics
Track 8: New-to-the-world Biopolyesters
Location: Texas B
DIN CERTCO GmbH, Germany
DIN CERTCO GmbH, Germany
Time : 10:45-11:10
Oliver Ehlert completed his Diploma in Chemistry and his PhD at Albert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, Germany, at the Freiburg Materials Research Center (FMF). After his stay at the German Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing (BAM) he since 2012 works as Product Manager at DIN CERTCO, a premier Certification Body in the field of compostable and biobased products.
Sustainable products are more and more in the focus of the polymer, packaging and other industries. Here, the confirmation of the respective properties becomes increasingly important, especially, the so-called “end-of-life” options, like compostability or biodegradability in different environments. On the other hand the use of biobased materials is getting more and more interesting for retailers, suppliers and end-consumers. To show the advantages of these materials third-party certification is a powerful tool to set you apart from your competitors. In this presentation we outline the different standards and certification systems DIN CERTCO offers and give an insight into political developments into recently developed and released standards for end-of-life options.
University Nice Sophia Antipolis,France
Title: PEF (polyethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate): a new emerging biobased polyester from carbohydrates.
Time : 11:10-11:35
Nathanaël Guigo received his Ph.D. in 2008 from the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis (France) in the field of furanic based polymers. He joined the Centre de Recherche sur les Macromolécules Végétales (Grenoble, France) as a post-doctoral fellow to work on cellulosic fibers in high performance composites. In 2010, he became associate professor and in 2013, he obtained a secondment to Avantium (Amsterdam) to work on the poly(ethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate). His scientific work has been published in more than 25 papers and he has been actively involved in three EU projects relative to the valorization of biomass into new materials.
Poly(ethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PEF) is nowadays considered as a promising sustainable successor of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) for several reasons. First, the PEF is fully biobased since it comes from the polycondensation of bio-based ethylene glycol and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) which is the chemical analogue of the terephthalic acid. FDCA is currently a.o. produced at pilot plant scale by a C6 sugars conversion process of vegetable biomass by Avantium. PEF possesses superior barrier properties and more attractive thermal properties (e.g., higher glass transition temperature and lower melting point) than PET. The much lower CO2, O2 and H2O permeability of PEF is a tremendous advantage for packaging applications. In order to fill the requirements of industrial applications a deep knowledge of polymer structure-property relations is needed and will be the subject of this presentation. An important aspect for both the production and application of aromatic polyesters such as PEF is their crystallization behavior. Drying and solid state polymerization processes, that are common for polyesters, occur above Tg and require the material to be semi-crystalline to avoid massive agglomeration or sticking.This is initially achieved by quiescent crystallization of the polyester. PEF crystals either formed from the glass or from the melt show similar structures but the dynamic of crystal growth differs between the two crystallization pathways. Moreover, annealing at temperatures close to the PEF melting point allowed obtaining information on PEF self-nucleation behavior.
M.C. Veiga obtained her PhD in the field of environmental bioengineering at the University of Santiago de Compostela. Afterwards she had a postdoctoral position at Michigan State University. At present she coordinates the Environmental Engineering Group at University of A Coruña. Main research interests are on the development of sustainable processes for the removal of pollutants from wastewater and production of biopolymers from renewable sources.
Brewery mills generate large volumes of wastewater that is characterized by high content of easily degradable organic matter, mainly volatile fatty acids, ethanol and sugars that can be used as substrate to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). The PHA production process was developed in a three-step process: acidogenic fermentation of wastewater, selection of a culture with high storage capacity fed with acidogenic effluent and finally a storage step. The acidogenic fermentation of brewery wastewater was carried out in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) at pH 6, obtaining an acidification of 70%. Fed-batch assays were performed using the enriched biomass, obtaining a maximum of 70 % PHA on a cell dry weight basis and a storage yield of 0.75 Cmmol PHA/Cmmol VFA. Moreover some polymer properties like temperature melting and crystallization or thermal stability were determined. A study of the mixed microbial cultures was also performed in order to identify the dominant strains of PHA accumulating microorganisms. To further assess the industrial relevance of the waste-based PHA process, the second step was studied in a semi-pilot scale reactor. Acknowledgements: The present research was financed through project CTQ2013-45581-R from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness.
Agricultural Research Organization The Volcani Center, Israel
Elena Poverenov has completed her PhD in Organic Chemistry from Weizmann Institute of Science and Post-doctoral studies in Polymers and Material Chemistry from Weizmann Institute of Science. Since 2011, she is Research Scientist in the Institute of Postharvest and Food Sciences at Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center. Her research group is implementing new advanced approaches from chemical science to improve quality and safety of food and agricultural products. She has published 30 papers in international journals including top journals, such as Nature and JACS and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member.
Biodegradable and edible biopolymers can be utilized as active coatings to control safety and enhance quality of food products. Edible coatings based on natural components respond to customer demands for safe and healthy approaches for food quality management and satisfy environmental concerns. Edible coatings may protect food products from physical, mechanical, and microbial damages and also allows delivery of beneficial components. In our laboratory, we utilize advanced materials science approaches to develop highly effective, safe and applicable edible coatings based on biopolymers. Layerby- Layer (LbL) approach enables to control properties and functionality of materials. Natural polysaccharides-based coatings were implemented for various fresh fruits (melon, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, and sweet pepper) by utilizing LbL method. The LbL coatings were combined with good adhesion of the inner poly-anion layer and beneficial activity of the outer poly-cation layer. The LbL arranged biopolymers resulted in significant elongation of product shelf life, since they slowed down tissue degradation, prevented development of hypoxic stress and off-flavors, and effectively inhibited microbial spoilage. Nanoemulsions were utilized to incorporate active component into the edible coatings. Food-source citral, a natural antimicrobial and aroma agent was introduced in matrices of various biopolymers. The nano-emulsified active coatings were compared to those of the coarse-emulsified.
Lunch Break: 12:40 - 13:45 @ Texas A