Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend International Conference and Exhibition on Biopolymers and Bioplastics San Francisco, USA.

Day 3 :

Keynote Forum

David Grewell

Iowa State University, USA

Keynote: Sustainable Plastics and the Center for Bioplastics and Biocomposites

Time : 09:00-09:25

OMICS International Biopolymers and Bioplastics-2015 International Conference Keynote Speaker David Grewell photo
Biography:

David Grewell received a BS, MS and PhD in Welding Engineering from The Ohio State University with minors in biomedical engineering and polymer processing in 1989, 2002 and 2005, respectively. He holds 14 patents and has published 50 journal, nearly 100 refereed conference papers, two books and has been an invited lecture to 7 international conferences. He is a Society Fellow within the Society of Plastic Engineers. His interests include bio-fuels, bio-materials, joining of plastics, micro-fabrication and laser processing of materials. He is currently at Iowa State University as a Professor in the department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering and has courtesy appointments with the Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Department, Food Science Department as well as at Erlangen University in Germany. He is also the Director of the NSF center on Bioplastics and Biocomposites (CB2).

Abstract:

In this presentation, we review the basic concepts and history of bioplastics and biocomposites. We then provide an overview of the current state of the field. While there have been many early developments in bioplastics and examples of biocomposites in the last 60 years, today this technology has gained increased interest with many applications, and there are new products and materials under development and commercialization. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has recently funded an Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) focused on bioplastics and bioplastics. Designated as the Center for Bioplastics and Biocomposites (CB2), this center is led by Iowa State University and Washington State University. The thrust of this new NSF center will be reviewed along with the center’s benefits to the bioplastics and biocomposites industry.

Keynote Forum

Luiz H. C. Mattoso

Embrapa Instrumentation, Brazil

Keynote: Food nanotechnology concepts applied to pectin-based edible packaging materials

Time : 09:25-09.50

OMICS International Biopolymers and Bioplastics-2015 International Conference Keynote Speaker Luiz H. C. Mattoso photo
Biography:

Luiz Mattoso has completed his Ph.D in Materials Engineering in 1993 from Federal University of São Carlos (Brazil). He was a visiting scientist at Université Montpellier (France), Domaine Universitaire de Grenoble (France), and USDA (CA, USA). He is the Center Director of Embrapa Instrumentation, a Brazilian federal research organization. He has published more than 255 papers in reputed journals and 29 book chapters, edited 9 books, won over 25 awards and distinctions, filed 14 patents, served as reviewer of 17 journals and as editorial board member of Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining; Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology; and Polímeros.

Abstract:

Pectins are vegetal, dietary, solution-processable biopolymers that are promising for edible coating and biodegradable packaging uses. Current research is showing that they play a role on the prevention of numerous diseases as well, including diabetes and carcinogenesis. The research conducted at the LNNA of Embrapa in Brazil has demonstrated that the potential of edible pectin films can be upgraded with nanotechnology to create new multifunctional materials for: active packaging, exemplified by the incorporation of cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsions (the major constituent of cinnamon essential oil) into edible pectin films; and bioactive packaging, exemplified by the reinforcement of edible pectin films by very small brucite (a Mg2+-rich primitive clay) nanoplates. Cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsions rendered antimicrobial properties to pectin films against foodborne pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Bacterial inhibition for same cinnamaldehyde content is remarkably improved as the nanoemulsion droplet size is reduced due to an increase in surface area. Mechanical and thermal properties of dietary pectin films were significantly improved due to the reinforcing effect of brucite nanoplates. Furthermore, migration assays using arugula leaves confirmed that brucite-reinforced pectin films are capable of fortifying foods with Mg dosages by migration. These findings demonstrate how dietary pectin films can be designed for advanced food packaging applications where the packaging material itself promotes consumer health, both by lowering preservative content and supplementing diet with target micronutrients.

  • Track 1: Green Chemicals : Biopolymers and Bioplastics
Speaker

Chair

Jian Yu

University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Warren Grigsby

Biopolymer Network Ltd, USA

Session Introduction

Jian Yu

University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA

Title: A green plastic formed directly from carbon dioxide and sunlight

Time : 09.50-10.10

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Jian Yu is a full professor in the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. He graduated from Zhejiang University of Technology (BEng. Chemical Engineering, 1982) and Zhejiang University (MSc, Chemical Engineering, 1985) in China. He continued his graduate education at the University of British Columbia, Canada, and earned his PhD in Biochemical Engineering in 1991. After post-doctoral training in industry and academia, he joined the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology in 1994 as an assistant professor. He taught undergraduate and postgraduate courses in chemical, biochemical and environmental engineering. His research explored novel biocatalysts and their application in industrial wastewater treatment. Dr. Yu joined the University of Hawaii at Manoa in 2001 and became a faculty of a NSF-funded engineering research center. Since then, he has developed teaching and research activities in the areas of bioprocessing engineering, bioreactor engineering and downstream processing for bio-based chemicals, plastics and fuels supported by federal grants and industrial contracts. He has supervised numerous projects of undergraduate students, postgraduate students and post-doctoral fellows, published more than seventy research papers in peer-reviewed journals and authored five book chapters. Three patents from his research on bio-based polymers and plastics have been licensed to companies in US, Asia and Europe. A green technology of producing bioplastics from agricultural by-products has been successfully scaled up to pilot plant and further to commercial production. He has served on numerous national and internal panels for research grants and awards.

Abstract:

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) or PHB is an eco-friendly thermoplastic synthesized by some microbial species from renewable carbohydrates. A conventional production route of PHB therefore includes two stages: (1) agricultural farming to produce carbohydrates (CH2O) from CO2, water and sunlight via natural photosynthesis (CO2 + H2O  CH2O + O2), and (2) microbial conversion of the organic carbonaceous substrates into PHB. The green plastic can now be produced directly from CO2, water and sunlight via an artificial photosynthesis system, consisting of a photovoltaic panel, a water electrolysis cell, and a dark fermenter. The intermittent solar radiation is captured and converted into electricity that immediately splits water into H2 and O2 for direct use and/or storage. CO2 is fixed continuously in dark conditions by a Knallgas bacterium that grows on CO2, H2 and O2. A laboratory facility was demonstrated including: a solar panel with 17% efficiency of sunlight to electricity, a membrane water electrolyzer with 84% efficiency of electricity to H2, and a bioreactor in which microbial cells fixed CO2 by using H2 and O2 with an efficiency of 20-50%, depending on gas composition. The overall energy efficiency therefore ranged from 2.9 to 7.1, or an average efficiency of 5% from solar energy to biomass (CH2O), which is much higher than the efficiency of conventional photosynthesis of plants (<1%) and microalgae (2-3%). About 50% of cell mass formed from CO2 was PHB. The microbial residues, after PHB recovery, can be reused in dark fermentation as a nutrient source. The mass transfer of gas molecules to microbial cells in bioreactor was the rate-limiting step and characterized with a volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa). The productivity of PHB in a conventional bioreactor with a moderate kLa was improved by 57% in a novel bioreactor. More importantly, the PHB yield per amount of H2 fed is increased by 475%.

Warren Grigsby

Biopolymer Network Ltd, New Zealand

Title: Modifying plastics with functional additives based on condensed tannin esters

Time : 10.10-10.30

Speaker
Biography:

Dr Warren Grigsby is a chemist with specialised experience in polymers and adhesives. His research focuses on developing wood-based materials and composites that incorporate high-performance bonding agents. Warren is leading the development of bio-based adhesive and polymer systems that can be used as substitutes for chemicals derived from petroleum.

Abstract:

Substituting synthetic plastic additives with bio-derived materials has potential to improve plastic sustainability credentials. Esterified and native condensed tannins from Pinus radiata bark have been explored as functional plastic additives in petrochemical and biodegradable plastics. The presence of longer alkyl chain hexanoate esters promoted tannin miscibility in plastics whereas short chain acetate esters tended to remain as discrete domains, acting as fillers in the processed plastics. The presence of tannin esters at typical plastic additive loadings did not alter plastic mechanical properties, but greater (up to 10%) loadings can reduce both flexural and tensile properties. In assessing the functional equivalence provided by tannin additives, it was demonstrated that tannin esters inhibit the effects of UV and oxidative degradation. In polypropylene the use of tannin hexanoate acetate had greater UV inhibition efficacy than a typically used synthetic UV stabiliser at comparable loading. The tannin-additives likely provide a stabilising role through inhibiting UV penetration into the plastic, with analysis suggesting the tannin moiety itself was sacrificial and preferentially degrading. The degree of tannin esterification and retention of antioxidant capacity was crucial to inhibiting oxidative degradation and reducing plastic aging. Soil composting also revealed the tannin esters do not impact degradation of biodegradable aliphatic polyesters.

Speaker
Biography:

Woo-Kul Lee completed his Ph. D. at the Oregon State University in USA and served as a postdoc and research assistant professor in College of Dentistry, Seoul National University in Korea. His major research area is developing biomaterials relevant to soft and hard tissues. He is currently a professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and a department head in the Department of Creative Convergent Manufacturing Engineering. He has been serving as a member of the editorial board of the Applied Chemistry for Engineering, director for academic affairs, and director for general affairs for the Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.

Abstract:

Skin is a soft tissue composing the outermost layer of human body and plays crucial roles including resistance to infection and maintenance of human body. Therefore, it is of interest to develop artificial skin for the recovery and substitute of damaged skin tissue. Surface property of biomaterials represents the biological function of biomaterials which will determine the material biocompatibility. In this study, we investigated on functional film development of surface modification of artificial skin substrates. For this purpose, a hybrid films composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) and calcium ion-containing compound were prepared. HA is a glycosaminoglycan and hydrophilic due to the presence of hydroxyl groups. It plays a role in cell proliferation. HA can stimulate the fibroblastic activities which result in the synthesis of collagen and elastin. Hence, HA can be a molecule that can be utilized for the promotion of skin regeneration. Calcium ion participates in a number of biological reactions at both molecular and cellular levels. We hypothesized that the combined effect of HA and calcium ion can further stimulate the fibroblasts for the skin regeneration. The hybrid films were prepared at different concentrations of HA and the cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, and level of collagen synthesis were examined by using NIH3T3 fibroblast cell line. The adhesion and proliferation of NIH3T3 cell appeared to be dependent HA concentration and were greater at low HA concentration. Adherent cells tended to agglomerate as HA concentration increases. Collagen synthesis was stimulated on the hybrid films compared to the control.

Hideki Abe

RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Japan

Title: Synthesis, properties, and structure of alternating copolymers of 3-hydroxybutyrate and lactate units

Time : 10.50-11.10

Speaker
Biography:

Hideki Abe received his Ph.D. degree in 1996 from Tokyo Institute of Technology. Since 1993 he has been working at the Polymer Chemistry Laboratory of RIKEN. He successively held various positions in RIKEN, and was promoted to Team Leader of Bioplastic Research Team, RIKEN Biomass Engineering Program, in 2010. His current research interests include the developments of biodegradable polymer materials for a variety of applications and the creations of novel bio-based polymer materials. He published over 100 original research papers.

Abstract:

We focused the structure and physical properties of alternating copolymers consisting of α-hydroxyl acid monomeric unit of lactate (2-hydroxypropionate: 2HP) and β-hydroxyl acid monomer unit of (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate ((R)-3HB). Taking into account the chiral structure of monomeric units, two types of stereoisomeric dimers ((R)-3HB-(R)-2HP and (R)-3HB-(S)-2HP) were respectively prepared, and the alternating copolymers with different stereocompositions were synthesized from the dimeric monomers by condensation reaction. Based on the NMR analyses, it was confirmed that the obtained copolymers had an alternating sequence of (R)-3HB and 2HP units. In contrast to random copolymers of (R)-3HB and 2HP units, the repeating sequence of alternately connected (R)-3HB and 2HP units formed crystalline region. The copolymer with alternating sequence of (R)-3HB and (S)-2HP units had a melting temperature at 83 °C. On the other hands, the melting temperature of copolymer of (R)-3HB and (R)-2HP units was quite higher than those of the corresponding homopolymers (around 180 °C) and reached to 233 °C. When the alternating copolymers were prepared from a mixture of stereoisomeric dimers, both the melting temperature and crystallinity varied in the wide ranges depending on the composition of stereoisomeric dimmers. In addition, the crystalline structure of alternating copolymers was characterized from the X-ray and electron diffraction patterns of lamellar singe crystals. The relationship between the crystalline structure and thermal properties in the alternating copolymers were discussed.

Break: Coffee Break: 11.10-11.25 @ Sierra A

Richard E. Engler

Bergeson & Campbell, USA

Title: The regulatory landscape for novel polymers

Time : 11.25-11.45

Speaker
Biography:

Rich Engler is a Senior Policy Advisor with B&C and The Acta Group. Previously, he worked at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for 17 years, where he was a staff scientist in the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. At EPA, he reviewed numerous chemicals under TSCA, led the Green Chemistry Program, including the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge, and worked on many other projects, including the Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators, and Trash-Free Waters. Prior to joining EPA, Rich taught organic chemistry at the University of San Diego. He holds a Ph.D. in physical organic chemistry from UC San Diego.

Abstract:

Most people know that pharmaceuticals, food contact materials, and pesticides require pre-market testing and regulatory review. As a result, entrepreneurs know to incorporate the time and expense related to regulatory review in their business plans. Few people know the regulatory requirements for cosmetic and personal care ingredients, and fewer still know the requirements for other uses, most of which are regulated by the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). This talk will give an overview of the regulatory landscape for polymers and take a more detailed look at TSCA and how it applies to polymer feedstocks, catalysts, monomers, and polymers.

Speaker
Biography:

I have completed my M.Sc. in Chemistry from Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad in 2010 and doing Ph.D. on Organometallic Chemistry/Polymer Chemistry in IIT Madras.

Abstract:

Biodegradable polymers have various biomedical and environmental applications and the preferred method for producing these polymers is ring-opening polymerizations (ROP) of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) and lactides. Particularly group IV complexes are found to be most efficient and stereoselective as catalysts for the ROP. New Ti(IV), Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) complexes containing tridentate [NNO]-type salicylaldiminato ligands (L1 and L2) have been synthesized by reacting metal alkoxides with the ligands via alcohol elimination. In the solid state, Zr and Hf complexes are monomeric whereas, the Ti complexes are dimeric, where both Ti atoms are connected through mono-µ-oxo bridge formation due to controlled hydrolysis. During the complexation with L1 in situ intramolecular Meerwein–Ponndorf–Verley (MPV) type reduction of the imine moiety happened and the amine got deprotonated. In contrast, the ligand L2 has produced imine complexes under similar conditions. DFT calculations were carried out to investigate the activation energies of MPV type reduction. These complexes are found to be active catalysts for the ROP of ε-CL and rac-LA with narrow MWDs of the produced polymers in a living manner through coordination-insertion mechanism. Also, these complexes initiate the polymerization in a stereoselective manner to produce heterotactic-rich PLA from rac-LA with Pr value upto 0.84. In addition, these complexes are quite active for the catalytic ROP of epoxides such as rac-cyclohexene oxide, rac-styrene oxide and rac-propylene oxide.

Speaker
Biography:

Sreenath Pappuru is a highly motivated and enthusiastic Organometallic and Polymer Chemist with a Masters degree in Organic Chemistry (2008-2010) from Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh and currently pursuing PhD in IIT Madras (from 2010) in Sustainable Polymer Chemistry/Organometallic Chemistry. He has achieved best poster award during PhD in International Symposium on “Nature Inspired initiatives in Chemical Trends” (NIICT-2014), March 2-5, 2014.

Abstract:

The complexation of salicylbenzoxazole ligand 2-(5-X-benzoxazol-2-yl)-6-R1-4-R2-phenol, L with titanium, zirconium and hafnium alkoxides selectively formed either mononuclear L2M(OR)2, 1-9 or oxo-bridging dinuclear complexes [(μ-O)L2M(OR)]2, 10-12 depending on the substituents on salicylbenzoxazole ligands. The ligands which have R1=R2=H or Br on the phenol moiety afforded mononuclear complexes 1-9. Notably the ligand which has R1=R2=Cl substituent on the phenol ring afforded oxo bridged dinuclear complexes 10-12. The substituents on benzoxazole ring (X=H or Cl) does not influence the nuclearity of complexes. All these complexes were fully characterized by various spectroscopic techniques including elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography. In ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of rac-Lactide (rac-LA), all these complexes produced isotactic rich (Pm up to 0.78) and alkoxide terminated polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions (MWDs) with predictable molecular weights (Mn). Ring-opening copolymerization (ROC) of L-lactide (L-LA) and ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) to yield block copolymers was also studied. In particular, dinuclear Zr complex (11) was found to exhibit extremely high activity in homo polymerisation of rac-LA and ROC of L-LA and ε-CL which is comparable with the previously reported active group IV complexes. Additionally, homo polymerisation of epoxides [rac-cyclohexene oxide (CHO), rac-propylene oxide (PO) and rac-styrene oxide (SO)] were also investigated. The reactivity of these monomers in homopolymerization promoted by these complexes varied in the order of CHO>PO>SO. The yield and molecular weight of the polymers increase with the prolonged reaction time. The complexes which have electronegative substituents on the phenol ring and oxazoline ring (5, 6, 8, 9, 11 and 12) improved the catalytic ability sharply. DFT studies have been carried out on ROP of LAs initiated by both the Ti and Zr complexes. The results indicate that the activation barrier height for the ring opening transition state of lactide monomer for Zr (IV) complex is low and hence facile compared to Ti (IV) complex. From density functional theory (DFT) calculations we explained the mechanistic pathways for ROP of lactide promoted by Ti and Zr complexes in detail.

Karaki Nadine

University of Lorraine, France

Title: Novel phenolic derivatives of pectin: enzymatic synthesis and properties

Time : 12.05-12.15

Speaker
Biography:

Nadine is a doctorate student in the University of Lorraine / France, her thesis inside the laboratory of biomolecules engineering is about the covalent and non-covalent functionalization of a biopolymer: the pectin, with polyphenols: Towards mixed supramolecular architectures.

Abstract:

Pectin is a natural biopolymer extracted mostly from citrus peel, sugar beet and apple pomace. In order to improve its functional properties and then to enlarge the field of its potential applications, pectin was functionalized according to two approaches. The first one consists in an oxidative reaction between pectin and Ferulic Acid (FA) catalysed by Myceliophthora thermophyla laccase leading to pectin-F. The second one was based on the physical adsorption of FA-oxidation products (POX) on pectin leading to pectin-POX. The POX were previously obtained through oxidative reaction of FA catalysed by laccase. A comparative study was performed aiming to determine the impact of each functionalization pathway on the structure and the properties of pectin. The modification of the structure of pectin was proved by FTIR and RMN-H methods. The study of the properties showed that the functionalized pectin powders were less hygroscopic and viscous than the native pectin and presented different gelation properties in the presence of calcium ions. A significant improvement of the antioxidant properties of pectin after functionalization was also observed. This trend was even more pronounced in the case of pectin-F. Finally the thermal properties and the structural characteristics of the different pectin samples were shown to be also affected by the functionalization performed. As a conclusion, both approaches led to derivatives with improved properties that could widen the field of applications of pectin.

  • Track 3: Biorefineries and Industrial Biotechnology, Different Uses of Bioplastics
    Track 7: Biofibers and Microbial cellulose
Speaker

Chair

Peter Keeling

CBiRC, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Monique Lacroix

Laboratoires de recherche en Sciences, Canada

Session Introduction

Peter Keeling

National Science Foundation, USA

Title: Innovations and developments towards advanced biomanufacturing of biobased chemicals

Time : 12.15-12.35

Speaker
Biography:

Peter L Keeling (PhD) is Director of the Innovation Program at the NSF Engineering Research Center for Biorenewable Chemicals (CBiRC), based at Iowa State University. Peter has over 30 years of R&D and management experience in the biotechnology and biorenewables sector. Peter received his PhD and BS degrees in Biochemistry from the Council for National Academic Awards, UK. After his postdoctoral research, Peter worked for the R&D division of ICI/Zeneca in what is now Syngenta, was a Co-Founder and Research Director of ExSeed Genetics and then became Unit Research Director of a division of BASF Plant Science. In 2009 Peter took his current role at the interface of academia and industry when CBiRC became fully operational. As well as working closely with CBiRC\'s industry members, Peter teaches entrepreneurship and runs the BioBased Foundry, a startup mentoring program.

Abstract:

The NSF funded Engineering Research Center, CBiRC, is developing innovative biorenewable chemical platforms from bio-based feedstocks. CBiRC uses state of the art knowhow, components and computational tools combined with core knowhow in biocatalytic and chemical catalytic engineering. Together this is creating an outstanding education program, a powerful R&D portfolio and unique insights into how to pull this together into systems level opportunities. By joining CBiRC\'s valuable industry membership program, industry members gain access to these technological developments. CBiRC believes the existing petrochemical supply chain can be transformed with key foundational intermediates that deliver an array of drop-in chemistry or similar functionality to existing fossil-carbon-based chemicals. Here we will describe our progress towards creating advanced biomanufacturing systems with new platform molecules for biobased chemicals.

Monique Lacroix

Laboratoires de recherche en Sciences, Canada

Title: New development of application of Nanocellulose for food packaging application

Time : 12.35-12.55

Speaker
Biography:

Professor Lacroix has completed a B.Sc.A. a M.Sc. in Food Sciences Technology in 1980 and 1982 respectively and a Ph.D. in Nutrition in 1986. She is full professor at INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Québec, Canada and director of the Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food and of the Canadian Irradiation Centre. She is Fellow of the International Academy of Food Science and Technology (IAFoST). According to the ISI Essential Science Indicators Web product, her work garnered the highest percent increase of total citations in Agricultural Sciences in 2005. She is author of 225 publications, 10 patents and 18 book chapters

Abstract:

Global environmental concern, regarding the use of petroleum-based packaging materials, is encouraging researchers and industries in the search for packaging materials from natural biopolymers. Bioactive packaging is gaining more and more interest not only due to its environment friendly nature but also due to its potential to improve food quality and safety during packaging. Some of the short comings of biopolymers, such as weak mechanical and barrier properties can be significantly enhanced by the use of nanomaterials such as crystalline nanocellulose (CNC). The use of CNC can also extend the food shelf life and improve the food quality as they can serve as carriers of some active substances, such as antioxidants and antimicrobials. The CNC fiber-based composites have great potential in the preparation of cheap, lightweight, and very strong nanocomposites for food packaging. During this conference, the potential of the use and application of CNC fiber-based nanocomposites for the development of bioactive packaging based nanocomposite with different polymers like methylcellulose, chitosan, poly(ε-caprolactone), polylactic acid-nanocrystalline cellulose (PLA-NCC) supramolecular will be presented. The one or bilayer active nanocomposite films for their potential to eliminate pathogens in ready to eat vegetables and meat or the efficiency of the nanocomposite films for the preservation of the viability of probiotic bacteria will be included in this presentation.

Nabanita Saha

Tomas Bata University, Czech Republic

Title: Biomineralized (CaCO3) bacterial cellulose: A novel functional biomaterial

Time : 12.55-13.15

Speaker
Biography:

Nabanita Saha has completed her PhD in 1991 in Microbial Biotechnology from Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. After that, she worked at SPRERI as Scientific Officer. She joined at Tomas Bata University in Zlin in July 2001 and was appointed as Associate Professor in 2006. She is author or co-author of 28 papers registered in WOS database, 146 citations (without self-citations) and h-index 11. She supervised 5 Doctoral Thesis; 2 are completed and 3 ongoing [as a supervisor (3) and consultant (2)]. She is Board Member of SPE, European Medical Plastic and member of several international scientific societies.

Abstract:

Bacterial cellulose (BC) based functional biomaterials represent an important challenge in biomaterial research for potential use in certain biomedical applications (e.g. scaffolds for bone tissue engineering). Credit goes to inherent properties of BC, such as porosity, density, water holding capacity, high strength (similar to the mechanical properties of cartilage), physical stability and relatively low degradation rate of cellulose inside the human body etc. Bone is a composite material with an organic phase (collagen and non-collagenous proteins) and an inorganic mineral phase (calcium hydroxyapatite). Moreover, it is proven that BC nanofibers can mimic collagen nanofibers for Ca-P mineral deposition via biomineralization. It is assumed that in near future, biomineralized bacterial cellulose (filled with calcium carbonate (CaCO3)) can be a substitute biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. Some work done on BC-hydroxyapatite (Hap) nanocomposites as similar kind of calcium deficient (Hap) found in natural bone but not much work done on BC-CaCO3.This paper will report about promotion of CaCO3 deposition on BC membranes using calcium chloride and sodium carbonate as starting reactants. The diffusion–driven mineralization technique has been implemented for the fabrication of CaCO3 within BC mat. The biomimetic mineralization study was performed for 0 to 60 min at stationary conditions. Several diverse shapes and sizes dispersed white crystal cubic structures are observed on BC mat. In conclusion, it can be mentioned that incubation period has great influence on biomimetic nucleation and formation of CaCO3. The precise information about BC biosynthesis and biomineralization process will be discussed during presentation.

Break: Lunch Break: 13.15-14.00 @ Sequoia-Redwood
Speaker
Biography:

P. Samyn completed his Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering at Ghent University (2007) and took several post-doctoral research projects at Department of Textiles (Ghent), Department of Microscystems Engineering (Freiburg) and was visiting professor at the Pulp and Paper Institute (Toronto). He is currently a Robert-Bosch Juniorprofessor at the University of Freiburg working on the processing of bio-based nanocomposites for coatings and structural applications. He has published more than 150 papers in the field of tribology, adhesion science

Abstract:

The abundant availability of cellulose resources and the favourable mechanical properties of its microfibrillated compounds makes them as good candidate for reinforcing agents in biocomposites. However, problems in homogeneous dispersive and distributive mixing of the cellulose additives due to their highly hydrophilic nature, often restrict the full capability of bio-based composites. Traditionally, surface modification of microfibrillated cellulose is often performed by introducing chemical moieties such as silanes, acrylates, vinyl etc. In view of developing a more sustainable and functional design of interface engineering, a new method is presented where nanoparticles including plant oil or wax are deposited onto the fiber surface and the required hydrophobicity can be controlled by thermal release of the hydrophobic moieties from the surface under thermal curing. In this work, the surfaces of microfibrillated cellulose are modified through decoration with poly(styrene-co-maleimide) nanoparticles that are synthesized in presence of with carnauba wax and soy oil. The fibers are added in an autoclave reactor together with the poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) precursors and ammonium hydroxide. During reaction, further fibrillation of the fibers together with the deposition of 20 – 100 nm nanoparticles onto the fiber surfaces are observed. Finally, a hydrophobic fibrous network is obtained with encapsulated hydrophobic agents. After thermal curing of the modified pulp fibers at temperatures of 125 to 250°C for different times, the gradual release of wax from the network is observed and final contact angles of 157° on the microfibrillated cellulose are measured. The modified fibers are characterized by thermal analysis (DSC, TGA, DMA) and chemical mapping by confocal Raman spectroscopy. The processing properties of the modified fibers are characterized by rotational rheometry. Finally, the beneficial properties of the modified fibers during melt-processing together with PLA result in an increase in mechanical properties for the composites with surface-modified fibers compared to the native fibers.

Speaker
Biography:

Caio G. Otoni has completed his B.Sc in Food Engineering from Federal University of Viçosa, Brazil. Currently, he is a Ph.D. student in Materials Science and Engineering at PPG-CEM, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil, as well as member of the National Nanotechnology Laboratory for Agribusiness from Embrapa Instrumentation, a Brazilian federal research organization. Otoni\'s main research interests include biopolymers, active food packaging, and nanotechnology. He has volunteered at USDA/ARS/WRRC for one year. Otoni has published several papers in scientific journals and reviews for Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, Ciência Rural, and Journal of Food Science & Nutrition.

Abstract:

Aiming at minimizing the environmental impact caused by the use of synthetic, non-renewable polymers, naturally occurring alternatives have been increasingly studied. Cellulose is a rigid, infusible, water-insoluble and fibrous-like biopolymer. In order to improve its film-forming properties, its hydroxyl groups are partially etherified into hydroxypropyl and methoxyl groups, resulting in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). We evaluated the effects of methoxyl content (MC) and average viscosimetric molecular weight (Mv) on glass transition temperature (Tg), water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (σ), and elastic modulus (E) of films produced from aqueous film-forming solutions comprising 2% (w/v) of HPMC. We studied METHOCEL™ E15 (MC: 28-30%; Mv: 120,000 g.mol-1; Tg: 174 ˚C; WVP: 0.75 g.mm.kPa-1.h-1.m 2; σ: 31 MPa; E: 1.45 GPa), E4M (MC: 28-30%; Mv: 530,000 g.mol-1; Tg: 178 ˚C; WVP: 0.92 g.mm.kPa-1.h-1.m 2; σ: 67 MPa; E: 1.76 GPa), and K4M (MC: 19-24%; Mv: 550,000 g.mol-1; Tg: 210 ˚C; WVP: 1.52 g.mm.kPa-1.h-1.m 2; σ: 52 MPa; E: 1.74 GPa). Longer HPMC chains led to stronger (higher σ) and stiffer (higher E) films having higher Tg due to the increased physical entanglement and lower free volume and mobility. Films with higher MC were stronger due to the anchoring effect of methoxyl groups. Also, they presented lower Tg and WVP as a result of the lower occurrence of hydroxyl groups, that provide polarity and hydrophilicity. We demonstrated that both MC and molecular weight influence the physical-mechanical properties of HPMC films and should be taken into account in the development of novel bio-based materials with suitable properties.

Speaker
Biography:

Joe Jankowski is the Commercial Manager for Green Polyethylene for North America. While working for Braskem America, Inc., he has also gained experience in polypropylene as well as Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene. Prior to that, Joe worked as a machinery engineer for Sunoco refining after serving in the US Navy in operations and engineering roles. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy and received his MBA from the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania.

Abstract:

Bio-based polyethylene was brought to the global market by Braskem in 2010. Many brand owners and converters have brought solutions to the global market displacing fossil based conventional resins. In many regions these projects have been quickly adopted while in other regions of the world, firms have move cautiously forward without switching. This presentation will review the challenges involved with bringing bio-based solutions to the market and provide case studies of where the value chain has been successful in penetrating the conventional market with renewable resources.

Rh Fitri Faradilla

ARC Training Centre for Advanced Technologies in Food Manufacture, Australia

Title: Characterisation of nanocelluloses from banana pseudo-stem as biomaterial in biodegradable food packaging

Time : 15.00-15.10

Speaker
Biography:

RH Fitri Faradilla completed her Bachelor in Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia in 2010 and completed her MSc in Food Science and Nutrition, University of New South Wales, Australia in 2013.And currently doing her research on Utilising natural cellulose for packaging materials as post graduate student in the University of New South Wales, Australia.

Abstract:

Banana pseudo-stem is one of the promising sources of nanocelluloses for biodegradable food packaging. This banana pseudo-stem is the largest part of a banana plant and it is considered as an agricultural waste since farmers cut it down when they harvest the fruits. In this research, nanocelluloses from banana pseudo-stem were extracted and characterised for further application as a biodegradable food packaging material. Nanocelluloses were extracted through chemical reactions, which included bleaching and oxidation reactions, and mechanical disintegrations. The properties of nanocelluloses from inner and outer layers of banana pseudo-stem and from single and double bleaching were characterised and compared. Celluloses from outer layer had slightly higher crystallinity index (CI) than the inner layer, which was approximately 36.5% for inner and 43.9% for outer parts. Extraction of nanocelluloses increased the CI by almost twice and double bleached nanocelluloses had CI slightly higher than single bleached nanocelluloses. Increase in crystalline proportion of the nanocelluloses was also observed from the endotherm peak from differential scanning calorimetry. Water flow temperatures of nanocelluloses were lower than the raw pseudo-stem flour. From the thermo gravimetric analysis, nanocelluloses seemed to degrade at around 224 oC, while the raw banana pseudo-stem degraded at 232 oC for inner and 261 oC for outer part. This low degradation temperature was expected since the nanocelluloses had diameter much smaller (6-27 nm) than the raw banana pseudo stem flour (>50 µm).

Vimal Katiyar

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India

Title: Cellulose nanocrystals: Potential nanofiller for food packaging and catalytic applications

Time : 15.10-15.30

Biography:

Vimal Katiyar is currently working as Associate Professor in Department of Chemical Engineering at Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India. He has more than 25 international publications and patents on poly lactic acid based technology in diversified area such as specialization in polylactic acid synthesis, industrial level films and nanocomposites processing, biopolymer based nanofillers, migration, polymer modeling and polymer characterization. He is Team Leader of Center of Excellence for Sustainable Polymers at IIT Guwahati.

Abstract:

Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNCs) is a biodegradable, non-toxic, environmentally friendly nanoparticle with immense potential for application in fields such as biomedical engineering, food packaging, sensors, electronic devices etc. In our lab, CNCs using different polymorphs of cellulose were fabricated from raw bamboo pulp through alkali treatment followed by acid hydrolysis. The effect of CNC polymorphs, namely CNC I, CNC II and CNC I→II (CNC II from cellulose I), on its morphology, crystal structure, degree of hydrogen bonding and thermal stability were studied. These polymorphs were dispersed in poly-lactic acid (PLA) films using solution casting approach and their effect on the structural, thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of the PLA was investigated. Incorporation of CNC II and CNC I→II significantly improved the Young’s modulus (by~72%). Therefore, the current study provides an insight towards selection of appropriate polymorphs for fabrication of CNC reinforced high performance PLA based bio-nanocomposites. Moreover, we have used the hydroxyl functional groups on CNCs as an anchor point for the simultaneous reduction and stabilization of zero valent nano-particles (ZVI). The CNCs supported ZVI had narrow size distribution along with improved dispersion stability in water. Moreover, this biocatalyst performed well in the degradation of methylene blue and hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. Further, we have observed autonomous motion of CNCs supported ZVI in the presence of peroxide fuel, whose locomotion can be externally controlled under both magnetic field and pH gradient. Interestingly, both the fields led to remotely control directionality and speed of the biocatalyst making it a potential candidate for next generation nano-machine for sensors, imaging and drug delivery applications.

Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa

Federal University of Rio Grande, Brazil

Title: Microalgal engineering aspects of biopolymer production

Time : 15.30-15.50

Biography:

Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa completed his PhD in Food Engineering from the State University of Campinas in 1996. He is currently Professor at the Federal University of Rio Grande, Researcher level 1C of the CNPq and Head of the Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering. He is coordinator of the Biochemical Engineering course. He was coordinator of the Graduate Food Engineering course and Food Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. He has published more than 135 papers in reputed journals. He mainly works on science and food technology with emphasis on food engineering, and other topics, such as microalgae, biopolymers and nanotechnology.

Abstract:

Many analyses have been carried out about the future possibility of exhausting the planet’s resources and its ability to sustain its inhabitants. The use of microorganisms and their metabolic products by humans is one of the most significant fields of biotechnology. Microalgae are descendants of the first photosynthetic life forms. More than 3,500 million years ago the atmosphere was made up of microalgae with oxygen, since then, they have contributed to regulating the planet\'s biosphere. The use of solar energy through photosynthesis in microalgae cultivation is a clean, efficient and low cost process, since the sun\'s energy is virtually free and unlimited. The biomass of microalgae and its processing products are employed as biopolymers. Biopolymers can be produced using biofixation of carbon dioxide by microalgae and could reduce dependency on both petroleum and carbon dioxide emissions. Cyanobacteria have potential for the production of biopolymers and their yield can be increased by stressing the culture via nutrient limitation or other means, use of recombinant strains, control of metabolic flux and the use of different bioreactor types. Unlike with crop plants, the cultivation of microalgae does not require the use of large areas of ground and can occupy areas inappropriate for agriculture and thus do not compete with food production. The biopolymers from microalgae have thermoplastic, mechanical and physical properties similar to polypropylene. They are biocompatible, recyclable and biodegradable and produce zero toxic waste since they biodegrade into carbon dioxide and water by microbial attack in about three months to one year.

  • 15:50-16:50: Workshop on Development of Polymeric Materials from renewable sources using Nanotechnology by Luiz Henrique Capparelli Mattoso, National Nanotech Laboratory for Research in Agriculture Embrapa, Brazil

Session Introduction

Luiz H. C. Mattoso

National Nanotechnology Laboratory for Agribusiness ,Brazil

Title: Development of polymeric materials from renewable sources using nanotechnology
Speaker
Biography:

Luiz Mattoso has completed his Ph.D in Materials Engineering in 1993 from Federal University of São Carlos (Brazil). He was a visiting scientist at Université Montpellier (France), Domaine Universitaire de Grenoble (France), and USDA (CA, USA). He is the Center Director of Embrapa Instrumentation, a Brazilian federal research organization. He has published more than 255 papers in reputed journals and 29 book chapters, edited 9 books, won over 25 awards and distinctions, filed 14 patents, served as reviewer of 17 journals and as editorial board member of Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining; Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology; and Polímeros.

Abstract:

Pectins are vegetal, dietary, solution-processable biopolymers that are promising for edible coating and biodegradable packaging uses. Current research is showing that they play a role on the prevention of numerous diseases as well, including diabetes and carcinogenesis. The research conducted at the LNNA of Embrapa in Brazil has demonstrated that the potential of edible pectin films can be upgraded with nanotechnology to create new multifunctional materials for: active packaging, exemplified by the incorporation of cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsions (the major constituent of cinnamon essential oil) into edible pectin films; and bioactive packaging, exemplified by the reinforcement of edible pectin films by very small brucite (a Mg2+-rich primitive clay) nanoplates. Cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsions rendered antimicrobial properties to pectin films against foodborne pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Bacterial inhibition for same cinnamaldehyde content is remarkably improved as the nanoemulsion droplet size is reduced due to an increase in surface area. Mechanical and thermal properties of dietary pectin films were significantly improved due to the reinforcing effect of brucite nanoplates. Furthermore, migration assays using arugula leaves confirmed that brucite-reinforced pectin films are capable of fortifying foods with Mg dosages by migration. These findings demonstrate how dietary pectin films can be designed for advanced food packaging applications where the packaging material itself promotes consumer health, both by lowering preservative content and supplementing diet with target micronutrients.

Break: Coffee Break: 16.50-17.15 @ Sierra A
Award Ceremony